The first concept to understand is the difference between digital and analog data. Many people agree that digital music recordings compact disks are superior to analog music recordings vinyl LP's or albums. This next example explains why.

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Here is a high-level look at the digital and analog recording process:. You will see that for many of the same reasons digital computers are preferred over analog computers.

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When you pick a guitar string it starts to vibrate. These vibrations cause air molecules to compress and expand. If the effected air molecules reach your ear it will cause your eardrum to vibrate. If they strike a microphone they will cause carbon crystals to vibrate which will induce an electrical signal with characteristics similar to the sound wave.

The sound wave and electrical signal are analog. In the second half of the analog recording process the electrical signal is processed by an analog circuit and the output of this circuit is being used to drive a record cutting arm. The cutting arm reproduces the original sound in the form of continuous hills and valleys on the vinyl LP.

On playback the phonograph needle follows the hills and valleys and these vibrations are translated into an electrical current that drives the speaker. The second diagram shows the high-level process for producing a CD.

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- Introduction to Digital Systems!
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The first part is unchanged. What's new is the analog to digital conversion that is done early. Prerequisite: C or better in CSC Basic concepts in the design and analysis of digital systems. Number systems and codes. Combinational circuit analysis and design using Boolean algebra. Sequential logic circuit analysis and design. View the Summer Schedule of Classes.

## ENGR 2406 - Introduction to Digital Systems (Lecture + Lab) +

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Message from the President. Accreditation and Memberships. The example above shows the advantage of a digital system, but it doesn't give any clue as to what an analog computer looks like. In this section we will develop a simple analog computer that will multiply two numbers. Our analog computer will will use logarithms to compute the product of two numbers.

## Fundamentals of Digital Logic and Microcontrollers, 6th Edition by M. Rafiquzzaman

First a short review of logarithms:. Adding the logarithms of two numbers will give you the logarithm of the product of the two numbers. So, if you can compute the logarithm of a number, add two numbers, and compute the antilogarithm of a number you have a formula for multiplying two numbers. This is a pedagogical example for learning about analog computers, not necessarily the best way to perform multiplication.

For example,. So, another way to multiply two numbers is to add the logarithms of the two numbers and then take the antilog of the sum. This is how a slide rule works. For example:.

## Introduction of digital system

The example above shows two adjacent rules with numbers in an logarithmic scale. The logarithm for each number is the distance from the beginning of the ruler. To multiply two numbers you position the adjacent rules to compute the sum of the logarithmic distances of the two numbers. The example above is set to multiply by 2. Here is an analog circuit to multiply two numbers with the same technique used by a slide-rule:.