Energy drinks those with added caffeine generally had more carbohydrates than sports drinks: 0—67g per serving with a calorie content of 10— calories. The researchers said that routinely drinking these sports and energy drinks and soft drinks will result in excessive calorie intake and substantially increase the risk of becoming overweight or obese.
The researchers said that caffeine has been found to enhance physical performance in adults by increasing aerobic endurance and strength, improving reaction time and delaying fatigue. The size of the effects can vary, however, and there have been no studies in children. Caffeine can have a wide range of effects on the body, including increasing the heart rate and blood pressure.
It also reportedly increases speech rate, attentiveness and motor activity as well as body temperature and the secretion of gastric juices. Caffeine is also a diuretic. Psychological effects include effects on mood, increasing anxiety in people who are prone to this and sleep disturbances in some people.
The researchers say that energy drinks can contain large amounts of caffeine, often more per serving than cola. It can be hard to determine the amount of caffeine in the drink from the packaging as the serving size may be different from the packaging size. They say that the total amount of caffeine in some cans or bottles of energy drinks can exceed mg, which they say is equivalent to 14 cans of common caffeinated soft drinks.
To put this in context, they say that a lethal dose of caffeine is considered to be —mg per kg of weight about 6g for a 30kg child. They say that caffeine has other dangers for children, and can affect the developing brain and heart and the risk of developing addiction. They recommend that children should be discouraged from consuming caffeine.
They also highlight that the most common way children would be exposed to caffeine is in soft drinks, which have around 24mg of caffeine per serving. Energy drinks often include the plant extract guarana. This extract contains caffeine, and 1g of guarana is equivalent to 40mg of caffeine. Therefore, guarana will increase the total caffeine content in the beverage. In the energy drinks that the researchers sampled, they found that the drinks contained up to 30mg of guarana per ml.
Sports and energy drinks may contain electrolytes sodium and potassium salts. The sodium content of the drinks was 25—mg and the potassium content was 30—90mg per serving ml. Proteins are often added to sports drinks based on the idea that protein can enhance muscle recovery when consumed soon after exercise. However, the researchers say that most children can easily get their recommended intake 1. The technological options used by these industries are aimed predominately at increasing productivity, reducing costs, and adapting products to satisfy specific consumers within a mature market, objectives that usually use the development classes mentioned above as elements to help define strategies.
In general, research activities are not considered important assets for innovation in the sector. Technological capacity has been defined by De Mori , p. Thus, the innovative process of the food industry is characterized by extensive, intensive, and intricate technological interfaces with other industries that develop innovations throughout the productive process, starting with the raw material segment agriculture and livestock and extending up to the factors of production and capital goods.
Significant innovation occurs primarily in the field of ingredient and additive formulation, functional foods, transgenics, and packaging. Santini et al. Still on the topic of innovation in the sector, De Mori highlighted the importance assigned to hygiene and sanitary requirements, regulations, and standards regarding the production and commercialization of food products, at both the national and international levels.
In this sense, innovation is commonly found in organizational aspects, such as the implementation of good manufacturing practices and hazard analysis and critical control points HACCP. According to this author, product shelf life and long transport time to reach consumers demand logistical innovation, in terms of organizational and marketing processes.
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These observations are important, since they indicate that to develop competitiveness in the food and beverage industry, innovation in management technologies must be coupled with product and process innovation. On the innovation potential of the food industry, Christensen et al.
According to the authors, innovations in the food and beverage industry are isolated events and are the result of open-ended processes — evolutionary processes in which it is difficult to establish a beginning and end point in time. In the sector, technological innovations result from open and revolutionary processes and daily learning, together with elements of incrementalism.
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Imitative processes are widely used, since it is easy to obtain information about competitors and costs relative to barriers to entry are not high. Domingues conducted a study of the technological behavior and dynamics of the Brazilian food and beverage sector between and based on data from PINTEC. The results showed that even though the rate of innovation in the food industry was close to the national manufacturing industry average, indicators of effort were low.
This means that innovation is due much more to technology acquisition, especially machines and equipment, than to in-house technological development. Being part of a given market and deriving benefits from special legislative conditions or public sector demands provide certain advantages, through greater distribution channels and market facilities.
The food industry in Brazil plays a leading role in the national and economic settings. Given the growth of internal and external demands, food and beverage producers have invested in productive capacity and efficiency.
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In , the industry employed 1. This performance places the sector in the position of having the highest gross production value in the manufacturing industry. In , the sector exported the equivalent of BRL Furthermore, food imports were less important and were concentrated in wheat, totaling BRL This makes the food industry one of the most relevant in generating a positive balance of trade, which reached USD New market niches are also growing, boosting product differentiation strategies.
Products related to health and well-being diet, light, functional, fortified, natural and healthy foods are a good example of this trend toward strategic product differentiation. In , this segment obtained BRL It is also worth mentioning that in most cases, differentiated products are more demanding in terms of product and process technologies.
The present study employed two methods. First, a literature review was conducted on innovation and the characteristics of the innovation process that encompassed the specificities of the food industry. This review also included a survey of sectoral, national and international studies about the food and beverage industry. This information enabled the creation of a brief characterization of the Brazilian industrial food and beverage sector, emphasizing and justifying its importance in Brazil.
The second technique consisted of processing secondary data obtained through the Industrial Survey of Technological Innovation, conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics IBGE, , , , , in , , , and , all made available by the institute.
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Data from the manufacturing industries responsible for producing food and beverage products were analyzed in terms of product and process innovation, levels of novelty and main impacts. The intensity of expenditures of these industries and their main cooperative relationships, among other factors, were also scrutinized in these analyses. The main limitations found in this analytical exercise were related to variations in the nomenclature of variables used by IBGE throughout the years, especially between the and editions.
The absence of some data in the publication was also observed.
However, these limitations did not compromise the breadth and pertinence of the analyses. As highlighted above, innovation in the food and beverage industry shows strong relationships with its supporting industries - those producing packages, additives, and machinery and equipment, - especially in terms of process innovation, since product innovation is conducted for the most part by the food and beverage industry itself. The authors noted that a similar trend has been occurring in Brazil.
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Table 2 shows the big difference between product and process innovations in terms of the main agents responsible. Those that arise from cooperative relationships with other enterprises or institutions, or are acquired from other enterprises or institution, are considerably less frequent. In turn, process innovation is mainly developed and acquired from sources external to the food and beverage industry.
However, since , there has been considerable growth in process innovations conducted internally. This reveals some growth in the technological independence of firms in the sector from their supporting industries, which have traditionally developed technology for the sector. Source: IBGE , , , , Up to , there was an increase in the internalization of innovative product activities by enterprises. However, after , these rates decreased. In contrast, process innovation, which usually involves higher levels of technological capacity De Mori, , underwent a shift from relying on external agents to agents within the food and beverage industry itself, reflecting investments made in the sector.
Figure 1 demonstrates the amount of net revenue targeted toward various innovative activities by innovative firms. Note: "Software Acquisition" data were made available from onwards. The acquisition of machines and equipment was the most important innovative activity in all the analyzed periods, reaching 1.
However, this variable presented the greatest drop between the two most recent surveys. The growth in introduction of technological innovation in the market, such as the acquisition of external knowledge, grew 0. Observation of the rates of external knowledge acquisition for innovation and acquisition of machines and equipment for the same purpose suggest that there was a decrease in efforts towards innovative independence of firms between and These facts may be a reflection of recent government policies, which have encouraged cooperation of enterprises and universities with research institutes to boost their innovative processes.
Furthermore, the open innovation model, in which enterprises receive contributions from external partners clients, suppliers, universities and even competitors throughout the innovative process, has been increasingly adopted by enterprises. This indicator was obtained by dividing the total number of employed persons in full personnel equivalents by the total number of employed persons in the sector.
This finding is in agreement with the fact that the food and beverage industry has been increasingly developing internal innovative activities. However, the data provided by the IBGE is not sufficient to confirm this supposition.
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Since , the importance of information and research networks as sources of information for innovation development has grown. Technological advances in terms of information technology, in addition to the importance of licensing and patents and testing, trial and certification institutions, explain and justify this situation. Still on the topic of the main sources of information for innovation development, Figure 2 shows that, together with other enterprise areas, clients and suppliers stand out as strong sources of information on innovative activities in the food industry.
Between and , some sources of information external to enterprises fairs, conferences, centers of professional training, universities, etc. This data indicate that the sector is strongly involved in local innovation systems, given that national sources of information have grown progressively in importance, as indicated by most of the categories in Table 4.
After a considerable drop between and , levels of cooperation for innovation increased significantly from and , reaching Cooperation aimed at technological development can promote quicker innovative processes. Tus, the growth perceived in this last period could be a reflection of increased competitiveness in the sector, which drives more aggressive market behavior by enterprises. Figure 3 presents cooperative relationships with other organizations for innovation of the researched enterprises. Changes can be observed in terms of the importance of these organizations, with emphasis on the percentage growth in the importance of testing institutions, universities, and clients between the two most recent surveys.
This demonstrates efforts to acquire qualified human resources to undertake innovative activities, an important aspect of reducing the risks involved in innovation development.
Historically, suppliers have been the main cooperative agents for innovation in the food industry. This is a reflection of the already mentioned multiple interfaces of the innovation process in this industry. The increasingly important role of innovation in the competitive strategies of food enterprises is reflected in the growth of its innovation rates. However, during this period, the diversity of enterprise innovative activity decreased.
There was also a significant reduction in the percentage of enterprises that innovated in both products and processes. Between and , the number of enterprises that carried out only product innovation activities decreased, while the number of those that carried out only process innovation increased see Table 5. This contrasts with the low innovation rate considered new, not only to the enterprise in question, but also to the national market.